Error message

  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_timezone_set() expects parameter 1 to be DateTime, boolean given in format_date() (line 2040 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
  • Warning: date_format() expects parameter 1 to be DateTimeInterface, boolean given in format_date() (line 2050 of /home/globalne/public_html/includes/common.inc).
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Issues

The Global Network Initiative publishes statements and resources on a regular basis to highlight trends and issues of concern for all stakeholders in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. As a multi-stakeholder initiative, GNI draws on the collective expertise of our members and on our cumulative experience in the global implementation of the GNI Principles. 

GNI Hosts 2016 Learning Forum at Georgetown University

Date: 
Friday, December 2, 2016 - 16:13

Georgetown University, November 30, 2016

The Global Network Initiative 2016 Annual Public Learning Forum brought together experts to explore the immense challenges on the horizon for privacy and free expression in the ICT sector. 

The event, which was hosted by the Georgetown University Master of Science in Foreign Service Program, also marked the launch of GNI’s new policy brief on responding to extremist content online without harming free expression and privacy. “Extremist Content and the ICT Sector” sets out a series of recommendations to governments and companies and is the result of an 18 month-long global dialogue undertaken by GNI and its member organizations.

The imposition of government restrictions beyond borders was the theme this year, and our two panels featured discussions on a range of issues, including data localization, the enforcement of the European “Right to Be Forgotten” mandate, and the risks to human rights inherent in government responses to online extremism. 

In the first panel, “Extraterritoriality and Global Threats to Free Expression and Privacy,” experts from both sides of the Atlantic debated the human rights impacts of enforcing the European Right to be Forgotten. Professor Dawn Nunziato explained how the lines between search engines and content providers may be blurring, with news sites now under pressure to censor or remove material. Andrea Glorioso from the EU Delegation to the United States argued that it was important for sovereign democracies to be able to determine their own balance between rights to personal data and impacts on freedom of expression and human rights more broadly. 

Professor Jennifer Daskal argued that current approaches to cross-border data sharing may incentivize data localization and surreptitious means of gathering data. Farieha Aziz, Executive Director of Pakistani human rights group Bolo Bhi, walked the audience through the potential consequences of Pakistan’s Prevention of Electronic Crimes Bill (PECB), which has codified previously-arbitrary procedures that pose dangers for citizens’ rights online under a pretext of national security and countering terrorism. 

Building on extensive GNI efforts on network shutdowns this year, Andy O’Connell of Facebook argued for the need to raise awareness of this growing trend and for a multi-stakeholder coalition to demonstrate to governments and international institutions the economic harms of shutdowns, which could help shift government responses to elections and other political flash points. 

In our second panel on responses to online extremism, Microsoft’s Bernard Shen noted that online extremism is a real threat, but he cautioned against responses by governments that were based on “a false choice between security and human rights.” CDT’s Emma Llanso warned that laws and policies put in place in the United State and Europe will be replicated elsewhere, in contexts where democracy and the rule of law is weak. ‘Gbenga Sesan, GNI-Internews Fellow and Executive Director of Paradigm Initiative Nigeria, briefed the audience on the instances where accusations of “terrorism” are being used by African leaders to infringe on users’ rights online. 

Seamus Hughes of the Program on Extremism at George Washington University led a debate on the merits of current approaches to countering violent extremism, both online and off, and shared his analysis of an industry “finding a balance between terms-of-service enforcement and the need to protect security and rights.”  

We thank Michael Samway and the Georgetown University MSFS program for their support in hosting the event.

 

GNI Annual Public Learning Forum

Storms on the Horizon:

Contending with Complex Free Expression and

Privacy Challenges Online

Wednesday, November 30th 

Welcome Remarks

  • Michael Samway, Adjunct Professor, Georgetown University
  • Mark Stephens, Independent Board Chair, Global Network Initiative 

Panel 1: Extraterritoriality and Global Threats to Free Expression and Privacy

This session will go around the world in an hour, illustrating the challenges facing companies arising from conflicts of law as governments attempt to assert control over content and user data beyond their borders. Topics to be covered include data localization mandates, whether the right to be forgotten is going global, and contentious legislative developments in key countries.

  • Farieha Aziz, Executive Director, Bolo Bhi, Pakistan
  • Jennifer Daskal, Associate Professor, American University Washington College of Law
  • Andrea Glorioso, Counsellor for the Digital Economy, Delegation of the European Union to the USA
  • Dawn Nunziato, Professor of Law, George Washington University Law School
  • Andy O'Connell, Manager, Global Policy Development, Facebook
  • Moderated by Arturo Carrillo, Professor of Clinical Law, George Washington University Law School

Panel 2 - Grappling with Violent Extremism Online:

Toward Transparency and Due Process

GNI’s new policy brief on extremist content online will be presented, and representatives from government and international institutions, companies, academia, and civil society organizations will discuss the best way to protect freedom of expression and privacy while responding to extremism online.

  • Seamus Hughes, Deputy Director, Program on Extremism, George Washington University Center for Cyber and Homeland Security
  • Emma Llansó, Director, Free Expression Project, Center for Democracy & Technology
  • ‘Gbenga Sesan, Executive Director, Paradigm Initiative Nigeria
  • Bernard Shen, Assistant General Counsel, Microsoft
  • David Sullivan, Director of Learning and Development, Global Network Initiative
  • Moderated by Bennett Freeman, Board Secretary, Global Network Initiative

 

 

 

 

GNI Provides Input to UN Special Rapporteur’s Study on Telcos and the Internet Access Sector

Date: 
Friday, November 18, 2016 - 09:38

In last years’ report to the UN Human Rights Commission, Professor David Kaye, UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of opinion and expression, concluded that states pressure on telecommunications companies and Internet service providers (ISPs) to restrict freedom of opinion and expression “requires further documentation and scrutiny.”  

In our input to David Kaye’s follow-up study, we demonstrate that the GNI Principles and Implementation Guidelines are relevant for the entire ICT sector as companies respond to government requests that can impact users' freedom of expression and privacy rights. Furthermore, our collaboration with the Telecommunications Industry Dialogue provides a uniquely authoritative voice for engagement with international institutions and governments.  

GNI urges governments, particularly those that have made commitments to human rights online, to report on the requests they make of companies to take down content or produce user data and to make it legally possible for companies to report regularly to the public on the requests they receive. 

The Telecommunications Industry Dialogue submission, which aligns with the GNI submission, can be found on the Industry Dialogue website

 

GNI Briefs the U.S. Helsinki Commission on Internet Freedom

Date: 
Friday, March 4, 2016 - 11:24

On Thursday, March 3, 2016, GNI Director of Policy and Learning Lisl Brunner presented to the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (U.S. Helsinki Commission) at a briefing titled “Internet Freedom in the Age of Dictators and Terrorists.”

In her statement, Brunner outlined GNI’s efforts to support responsible information and communications technology (ICT) company decision making, foster corporate accountability, engage policymakers, and provide a safe space for members to share learning on complex issues.

Brunner illustrated the positive impact of these efforts on privacy and freedom of expression online. “The GNI’s independent assessment process has yielded tangible changes and improvements in [ICT] company policies and practices,” including “the adoption of human rights impact assessments and the development of enhanced company transparency with customers, users and the wider public.”

Additionally, she noted, “The application of GNI principles has reduced the amount of content removed and personal data released as a result of government requests,” and the GNI has “successfully encouraged governments to increase transparency and public debate around their surveillance laws, policies and practices.”

GNI academic member and director of the Ranking Digital Rights project at New America, Rebecca MacKinnon, also briefed the Helsinki Commission.

The Global Network Initiative is an international multi-stakeholder organization that brings together information and communications technology companies, civil society (including human rights and press freedom groups), academics and investors to work together to forge a common approach to protecting and advancing free expression and privacy around the world. GNI members commit to, and are independently assessed on GNI principles and guidelines for responding to government requests that could harm the freedom of expression and privacy rights of users.

For media inquires, please contact Kath Cummins, kcummins@globalnetworkinitiative.org.

 

GNI speaks at UN meeting on how to stem flow of Foreign Terrorist Fighters

Date: 
Thursday, August 20, 2015 - 16:35

GNI’s Independent Chair and Executive Director, Mark Stephens and Judith Lichtenberg, presented at a full day of expert sessions prior to a special meeting of the United Nations Security Council Counter Terrorism Committee in Madrid in July on how to better stem the flow of foreign terrorist fighters.Description: --break->

Joining over 400 experts and representatives of UN Member States, civil society, academia and research institutions, GNI argued for a proportionate and transparent response to online terrorist activities that protect freedom of expression and privacy rights, and called on governments to prioritize the reform of Mutual Legal Assistance mechanisms.  

You can find GNI contributions to the panel on ‘Community policing and social media-related law enforcement initiatives’ here and on ‘International judicial cooperation’ here.

 

GNI Joins Coalition Letter to Senate regarding Section 603 of Intelligence Authorization Act

Date: 
Tuesday, August 4, 2015 - 14:35

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) joined human rights and civil liberties organizations and trade associations to convey its concerns with a provision in the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (S. 1705) in a coalition letter to Senate.

Read the letter here.

Extremist Content and the ICT Sector - Launching a GNI Policy Dialogue

Date: 
Wednesday, July 1, 2015 - 10:50

In the months since the terrorist attacks in Paris and Copenhagen, the debate over the role of information and communication technology (ICT) companies in removing alleged terrorist or extremist online content has accelerated significantly.

The Global Network Initiative (GNI), while acknowledging the legitimate national security and law enforcement obligations of governments, is concerned that the rush to adopt laws and policies that increase government pressure or requirements on companies to restrict or remove content may have serious consequences for freedom of expression and may not be effective in countering violent extremism and stemming recruitment by organizations such as ISIS.  

GNI has published a short document setting out key questions and considerations to inform debate and foster collaboration on this issue.

GNI encourages governments and intergovernmental organizations to consult broadly with affected stakeholders, experts and the public to address and resolve important questions as they consider these measures. As part of GNI’s shared learning and policy engagement, we will focus on this issue during the coming months, and develop a policy and learning agenda that brings together our participants to explore the following key questions.

Please contact us at info@globalnetworkinitiative.org if you are interested in engaging with us on this topic.

 

GNI Welcomes Landmark Freedom of Expression Ruling by the Supreme Court of India

Date: 
Tuesday, March 24, 2015 - 20:06

The Global Network Initiative applauds today's landmark ruling by the Supreme Court of India in support of freedom of expression. 

"With this ruling, India's Supreme Court has rightly declared unconstitutional the infamous IT Act provision used to arrest individuals merely for "liking" online content, and provided important safeguards to help its burgeoning Internet industry succeed,” said Mark Stephens, independent chair of the GNI Board. 

The Court struck down as unconstitutional Section 66a of the IT Act, which provided the power to arrest individuals for posting allegedly “offensive” content, and which had been used to arrest individuals for posting content on Facebook and other social networks. 

The Court also strengthened the safe harbor provisions for Internet intermediaries in section 79 of the IT Act, requiring a court or government order for takedowns under this provision. 

In March 2014, GNI released a report prepared by the consultancy firm Copenhagen Economics, which found that internet intermediaries could add billions to India’s GDP, provided that the intermediary liability regime is reformed. 

Report co-author Dr. Bruno Basalisco, Digital Economy service leader at Copenhagen Economics, noted, “Removing legal uncertainty and restrictions that hamper freedom of expression and enterprise online is excellent news for India as a whole. Citizen freedom of expression and economic contribution go hand in hand: revised rules for online platforms that support user-generated content could increase their GDP contribution to more than 1.3 percent, equivalent to INR 2.49 lakh crore (or $41 Billion).”

Today’s ruling is a critically important step in that direction, and shows that freedom of expression and economic innovation are mutually beneficial. Learn more about the Internet laws affected by today’s ruling through our interactive slideshow.  

 

Getting Specific About Transparency, Privacy, and Free Expression Online

Date: 
Wednesday, November 5, 2014 - 13:58

Emma Llansó and Susan Morgan co-authored this post, which originally apparead on the CDT blog.

Amid the contentious global debates about privacy and surveillance since the Snowden revelations, few proposed reforms have attracted more consensus than calls for greater transparency. Although the devil remains in the details, the need to increase transparency around the requests that governments make of companies to hand over personal data or restrict content online is one of the rare points on which governments, companies, and civil society at least somewhat agree. Transparency is a necessary first step in supporting an informed public debate on whether domestic laws adequately protect individuals’ rights to privacy and freedom of expression.

This call for transparency has been echoed at the highest levels. The UN High Commissioner on Human Rights, Navi Pillay, called attention to “the disturbing lack of governmental transparency associated with surveillance policies, laws and practices, which hinders any effort to assess their coherence with international human rights law and to ensure accountability,” in her seminal report on the Right to Privacy in the Digital Age.

Companies have also taken steps to be more transparent with their users about the requests they receive from governments. Since the Snowden revelations, U.S. companies have filed legal challenges and supported legislation seeking the right to report about the national security requests they receive, and scores of companies have begun publishing transparency reports on government requests for user data. Internationally, telecommunications companies such as Vodafone have also begun to disclose this information, or to be transparent about where they are legally prohibited from reporting.

Some governments have started to signal a willingness to make improvements on transparency. For example, in June 2014 the Ministers of the Freedom Online Coalition, a partnership of 23 governments working to advance Internet freedom, committed to:

“Call upon governments worldwide to promote transparency and independent, effective domestic oversight related to electronic surveillance, use of content take-down notices, limitations or restrictions on online content or user access and other similar measures, while committing ourselves to do the same.”

CDT and the Global Network Initiative (GNI) believe that the time has come for a much more specific discussion of the transparency expectations and responsibilities of governments and companies that would facilitate this informed public debate around necessary reform. Working with other stakeholders over the past 9 months, we’ve developed a preliminary set of specific, actionable criteria for transparency, which we provide below.

Transparency is about more than just reporting numbers. Governments should make publicly available the laws and legal interpretations authorizing electronic surveillance or content removal, as well as report the aggregate numbers of requests, and the number of users impacted by these requests.

Governments should also permit companies to issue analogous reports. The combination of government and company reporting can help the public understand the scope of restrictions on rights and dispel myths about surveillance or content removal. And the progress towards greater reporting on national security requests in the United States demonstrates there is more that both governments and companies can say about interception requests without endangering national security.

In the coming weeks, GNI and the Telecommunications Industry Dialogue will be convening learning forums in California and Geneva to dive deeper into questions concerning how transparency can advance human rights online, and the barriers that both governments and companies face in providing the public with this information. CDT and GNI are also pleased to be working on these issues with other advocates, companies, and members of government through the Freedom Online Coalition Working Group on Privacy and Transparency Online. We welcome feedback on the recommendations below from all stakeholders, and we look forward to continuing this conversation online and around the world.

Surveillance

  • Publicly post laws authorizing surveillance as well as official legal interpretations of the law, including executive orders, legal opinions that are relied on by executive officials, and court orders.
  • Disclose the information about:
    • Which intelligence agencies/bodies are legally permitted to conduct surveillance;
    • The scope of the surveillance authorities of each of those entities;
    • The judicial, ministerial, other oversight mechanisms required for the authorization of each instance of surveillance;
    • The judicial, ministerial or independent oversight mechanisms that oversee the implementation of surveillance;
    • And the mechanisms for redress victims of unlawful surveillance may pursue.
    • Disclose to the victim of unlawful surveillance that unlawful surveillance has taken place as soon as practical considering the needs of the specific pending investigation.
    • Public disclosure of the scope of unlawful surveillance and remedial and disciplinary actions taken.
  • Disclose aggregated information about the surveillance demands they make on companies including:
    • The number of surveillance demands;
    • The number of user accounts affected by those demands;
    • The specific legal authority for each of those demands; and
    • Whether the demand sought communications content or non-content or both, and how the authorities define these terms.
  • Permit companies to disclose, with the level of detail set out above, aggregated information on number of surveillance demands that they receive and how they respond to them on at least an annual basis.
  • Permit companies to disclose technical requirements for surveillance that they are legally bound to install, implement, and comply with such as requirements to design lawful intercept capability into communications technology and to decrypt encrypted communications.

Content removal or restriction

  • Publicly post laws authorizing orders to remove or restrict content as well as official legal interpretations of the law, including executive orders, legal opinions that are relied on by executive officials, and court orders.
  • Disclose the information about:
    • Which government agencies/bodies are legally permitted to order takedowns;
    • The types of information by subject that can be ordered removed;
    • The judicial, ministerial, or other oversight mechanisms required for the authorization of each instance of content removal;
    • The judicial, ministerial, or independent oversight mechanisms that oversee the implementation of content takedowns;
    • And the mechanisms for redress that victims of unlawful censorship may pursue.
    • Public disclosure of the scope of unlawful censorship and remedial and disciplinary actions taken.
  • Permit companies to disclose the number of takedowns requests that they receive by number, subject matter, and specific legal authority, and how the company responded to the request.

Any deviations from these transparency requirements would be made only as strictly necessary.

Blocking Social Media Threatens Citizens’ Rights in Iraq

Date: 
Friday, June 13, 2014 - 14:27

The Global Network Initiative is alarmed by the widespread blocking of websites and social media amid the crisis in Iraq. The reported blocking of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, as well as other sites, inhibits civilians' ability to connect with family members and reach emergency services, reducing access to information at a time when it is urgently needed. The blocking of these services follows two earlier government-directed Internet outages documented earlier this week by Renesys. Governments who shut down communications services and networks in moments of crisis risk violating the right to freedom of expression.

GNI urges the Iraqi government to adhere to international standards when undertaking any measures to limit speech due to national security and terrorist threats. In particular, any restrictions on free expression should meet the tests of legality, necessity, and proportionality set out in Article 19(3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. GNI recommends the Iraqi Ministry of Communications to restore access to blocked sites and consider less intrusive alternative measures.

Video: Mark Stephens on the 'Right to Be Forgotten' Ruling

Date: 
Friday, May 30, 2014 - 14:59


GNI Board Chair Mark Stephens discusses the EU Court of Justice ruling on BBC World: 

Pages

GNI Hosts 2016 Learning Forum at Georgetown University

Date: 
Friday, December 2, 2016 - 16:13

Georgetown University, November 30, 2016

The Global Network Initiative 2016 Annual Public Learning Forum brought together experts to explore the immense challenges on the horizon for privacy and free expression in the ICT sector. 

The event, which was hosted by the Georgetown University Master of Science in Foreign Service Program, also marked the launch of GNI’s new policy brief on responding to extremist content online without harming free expression and privacy. “Extremist Content and the ICT Sector” sets out a series of recommendations to governments and companies and is the result of an 18 month-long global dialogue undertaken by GNI and its member organizations.

The imposition of government restrictions beyond borders was the theme this year, and our two panels featured discussions on a range of issues, including data localization, the enforcement of the European “Right to Be Forgotten” mandate, and the risks to human rights inherent in government responses to online extremism. 

In the first panel, “Extraterritoriality and Global Threats to Free Expression and Privacy,” experts from both sides of the Atlantic debated the human rights impacts of enforcing the European Right to be Forgotten. Professor Dawn Nunziato explained how the lines between search engines and content providers may be blurring, with news sites now under pressure to censor or remove material. Andrea Glorioso from the EU Delegation to the United States argued that it was important for sovereign democracies to be able to determine their own balance between rights to personal data and impacts on freedom of expression and human rights more broadly. 

Professor Jennifer Daskal argued that current approaches to cross-border data sharing may incentivize data localization and surreptitious means of gathering data. Farieha Aziz, Executive Director of Pakistani human rights group Bolo Bhi, walked the audience through the potential consequences of Pakistan’s Prevention of Electronic Crimes Bill (PECB), which has codified previously-arbitrary procedures that pose dangers for citizens’ rights online under a pretext of national security and countering terrorism. 

Building on extensive GNI efforts on network shutdowns this year, Andy O’Connell of Facebook argued for the need to raise awareness of this growing trend and for a multi-stakeholder coalition to demonstrate to governments and international institutions the economic harms of shutdowns, which could help shift government responses to elections and other political flash points. 

In our second panel on responses to online extremism, Microsoft’s Bernard Shen noted that online extremism is a real threat, but he cautioned against responses by governments that were based on “a false choice between security and human rights.” CDT’s Emma Llanso warned that laws and policies put in place in the United State and Europe will be replicated elsewhere, in contexts where democracy and the rule of law is weak. ‘Gbenga Sesan, GNI-Internews Fellow and Executive Director of Paradigm Initiative Nigeria, briefed the audience on the instances where accusations of “terrorism” are being used by African leaders to infringe on users’ rights online. 

Seamus Hughes of the Program on Extremism at George Washington University led a debate on the merits of current approaches to countering violent extremism, both online and off, and shared his analysis of an industry “finding a balance between terms-of-service enforcement and the need to protect security and rights.”  

We thank Michael Samway and the Georgetown University MSFS program for their support in hosting the event.

 

GNI Annual Public Learning Forum

Storms on the Horizon:

Contending with Complex Free Expression and

Privacy Challenges Online

Wednesday, November 30th 

Welcome Remarks

  • Michael Samway, Adjunct Professor, Georgetown University
  • Mark Stephens, Independent Board Chair, Global Network Initiative 

Panel 1: Extraterritoriality and Global Threats to Free Expression and Privacy

This session will go around the world in an hour, illustrating the challenges facing companies arising from conflicts of law as governments attempt to assert control over content and user data beyond their borders. Topics to be covered include data localization mandates, whether the right to be forgotten is going global, and contentious legislative developments in key countries.

  • Farieha Aziz, Executive Director, Bolo Bhi, Pakistan
  • Jennifer Daskal, Associate Professor, American University Washington College of Law
  • Andrea Glorioso, Counsellor for the Digital Economy, Delegation of the European Union to the USA
  • Dawn Nunziato, Professor of Law, George Washington University Law School
  • Andy O'Connell, Manager, Global Policy Development, Facebook
  • Moderated by Arturo Carrillo, Professor of Clinical Law, George Washington University Law School

Panel 2 - Grappling with Violent Extremism Online:

Toward Transparency and Due Process

GNI’s new policy brief on extremist content online will be presented, and representatives from government and international institutions, companies, academia, and civil society organizations will discuss the best way to protect freedom of expression and privacy while responding to extremism online.

  • Seamus Hughes, Deputy Director, Program on Extremism, George Washington University Center for Cyber and Homeland Security
  • Emma Llansó, Director, Free Expression Project, Center for Democracy & Technology
  • ‘Gbenga Sesan, Executive Director, Paradigm Initiative Nigeria
  • Bernard Shen, Assistant General Counsel, Microsoft
  • David Sullivan, Director of Learning and Development, Global Network Initiative
  • Moderated by Bennett Freeman, Board Secretary, Global Network Initiative

 

 

 

 

GNI Joins Coalition Opposing Proposal to Bar Privacy and Civil Liberties Board From Considering the Rights of Non-U.S. Persons

Date: 
Friday, June 24, 2016 - 10:43

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) joined a broad coalition of civil society groups, companies, and trade associations urging the U.S. Senate to oppose a provision in the Intelligence Authorization Act for FY 2017 (Act, S. 3017) that would bar the U.S. Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) from considering the privacy and civil liberties interests of anyone but citizens and lawful permanent residents of the U.S. (U.S. persons).

Read the 
letter.

 

The Global Network Initiative is an international multi-stakeholder organization that brings together information and communications technology companies, civil society (including human rights and press freedom groups), academics and investors to forge a common approach to protecting and advancing free expression and privacy around the world. GNI members commit to, and are independently assessed on GNI principles and guidelines for responding to government requests that could harm the freedom of expression and privacy rights of users. 

 

 

GNI Hosts UK Parliament Event on Cross-Border Data Law Enforcement Requests

Date: 
Friday, April 22, 2016 - 17:21

On April 19, the Global Network Initiative joined with Privacy International, the Center for Democracy and Technology, and the Oxford Internet Institute to host a public panel discussion: “Cross-Border Data Requests and the Investigatory Powers Bill”, at the UK Houses of Parliament. 

Panelists examined the challenges for both law enforcement and ICT companies under the current legal frameworks for cross-border data sharing and discussed the principles that could underpin a reformed mutual legal assistance (MLA) system. Reforming MLA is a key step toward new international frameworks that will allow law enforcement to legally and transparently access data they need to prosecute crime while ensuring robust safeguards for user privacy.

Speakers Keir Starmer QC MP (UK Labour), Gregory Nojeim (Senior Counsel, Center for Democracy and Technology), Professor Ian Brown (Oxford Internet Institute), Emma Ascroft (Director Public Policy, Yahoo!), and Caroline Wilson Palow (General Counsel, Privacy International) noted that the UK had an important opportunity to amend the Investigatory Powers Bill so that it did not create an international conflict of laws situation for local and global companies. Without an amendment, the IPB could result in other governments asserting their own extra-territorial jurisdiction, undermining encryption — including mandating backdoors — or enacting forced data localization. The speakers discussed the implications of the proposed US-UK Data sharing treaty, which will serve as an important model for bilateral data sharing agreements with the US and other countries.

Attendees at the event included MPs and Lords, officials from the UK Foreign Office, Cabinet Office, and the National Crime Authority, civil society organizations, academics, and technology companies. 

The Investigatory Powers Bill is currently going through scrutiny by the UK Parliament, with the Public Bills Committee due to complete its phase of this examination process by May 2nd.

In 2015, GNI commissioned a report by Professor Andrew K Woods on the reform of mutual legal assistance regimes. 

GNI would like to thank Lord Patel of Bradford OBE for generously hosting this event.

GNI Briefs the U.S. Helsinki Commission on Internet Freedom

Date: 
Friday, March 4, 2016 - 11:24

On Thursday, March 3, 2016, GNI Director of Policy and Learning Lisl Brunner presented to the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (U.S. Helsinki Commission) at a briefing titled “Internet Freedom in the Age of Dictators and Terrorists.”

In her statement, Brunner outlined GNI’s efforts to support responsible information and communications technology (ICT) company decision making, foster corporate accountability, engage policymakers, and provide a safe space for members to share learning on complex issues.

Brunner illustrated the positive impact of these efforts on privacy and freedom of expression online. “The GNI’s independent assessment process has yielded tangible changes and improvements in [ICT] company policies and practices,” including “the adoption of human rights impact assessments and the development of enhanced company transparency with customers, users and the wider public.”

Additionally, she noted, “The application of GNI principles has reduced the amount of content removed and personal data released as a result of government requests,” and the GNI has “successfully encouraged governments to increase transparency and public debate around their surveillance laws, policies and practices.”

GNI academic member and director of the Ranking Digital Rights project at New America, Rebecca MacKinnon, also briefed the Helsinki Commission.

The Global Network Initiative is an international multi-stakeholder organization that brings together information and communications technology companies, civil society (including human rights and press freedom groups), academics and investors to work together to forge a common approach to protecting and advancing free expression and privacy around the world. GNI members commit to, and are independently assessed on GNI principles and guidelines for responding to government requests that could harm the freedom of expression and privacy rights of users.

For media inquires, please contact Kath Cummins, kcummins@globalnetworkinitiative.org.

 

Free speech and privacy win as Section 603 of Intelligence Authorization Act dropped

Date: 
Tuesday, September 22, 2015 - 14:13

GNI was among the 31 civil society groups that successfully spoke out against section 603, which would have created a sweeping requirement for internet companies to report on their users. The Senate has reached an agreement to drop this provision. The letter signed by 31 civil liberty and trade associations is here.

Encryption and Human Rights Online

Date: 
Monday, June 15, 2015 - 16:51

The Global Network Initiative welcomes the first report to the Human Rights Council by David Kaye, UN Special Rapporteur for freedom of expression, on encryption, anonymity and digital communications. GNI provided a submission to inform the report and participate in an experts meeting in Geneva in March 2015. 

The report focuses on state obligations regarding secure online communication in the protection of the rights to privacy and freedom of expression, and identifies the GNI Principles on Freedom of Expression and Privacy as a resource for companies to apply as part of their efforts to respect users’ rights.

On June 10, GNI Executive Director Judith Lichtenberg spoke about encryption and human rights at the POLITICO Cybersecurity Summit in Brussels. "Governments should embrace strong encryption," said Lichtenberg, "it is a necessary tool for the protection of freedom of expression in the digital age."

The panel was moderated by David Meyer from POLITICO and also featured Europol Director Rob Wainwright and Christian Horchert from the Chaos Computer Club. Watch the video:

Global Network Initiative Applauds Passage of USA FREEDOM Act

Date: 
Wednesday, June 3, 2015 - 12:53

The Global Network Initiative applauds the passage of the USA FREEDOM Act, a critical first step toward reforming surveillance practices that will help to protect freedom of expression and privacy rights. By ending the bulk collection of phone records and increasing the transparency and oversight of U.S. national security surveillance practices, the USA FREEDOM Act shows that government surveillance reform is possible. The U.S. government should build upon this act by considering further reforms to protect the rights of persons in the United States and around the world, and other governments should follow suit to reform their own surveillance laws, policies and practices to bring them into alignment with international human rights standards. 

Statements by GNI participants:

Center for Democracy & Technology:
Victory: Passage of USA FREEDOM Act Reins in NSA Surveillance

Google:
Congress takes a significant step to reform government surveillance

Human Rights Watch:
US: Modest Step to Curb Spy Excesses

Microsoft:
Microsoft praises passage of the USA Freedom Act in the US Senate

Yahoo:
Statement on Passage of USA Freedom Act

 

GNI Joins Diverse Coalition to Call for Significant Surveillance Reforms

Date: 
Wednesday, March 25, 2015 - 09:23

The Global Network Initiative has joined with a wide range of privacy and human rights advocates, technology companies, and trade associations to agree on key elements of U.S surveillance reform.

In a letter to Congress and the Obama Administration, the coalition has urged a clear, strong, and effective end to bulk collection practices under the USA PATRIOT Act, transparency and accountability mechanisms for government and company reporting, and a declassification regime for Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court decisions.

As Congress and the executive branch consider surveillance reforms, GNI urges them to consider the international implications of U.S. reforms. The United States has an opportunity to demonstrate real leadership by enacting reforms that would bring oversight and control over surveillance regimes commensurate with their capacity. Reforms should help to ensure an approach to national security surveillance worthy of adoption globally that protects the privacy rights of all persons.

GNI participants, including companies who are members of the Reform Government Surveillance coalition, and civil society organizations including the Center for Democracy & Technology, the Committee to Protect Journalists, Human Rights Watch, PEN American Center, and World Press Freedom Committee signed the letter. 

New GNI Report Offers Reforms to Manage Rising Number of International Law Enforcement Requests for User Data

Date: 
Tuesday, January 27, 2015 - 11:45

Watch the video of the report launch event at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

WASHINGTON, DC—The Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA) regime—which consists of hundreds of bilateral and multilateral treaties that regulate government-to-government requests for user data—has struggled to keep up with the enormous number of requests for digital evidence arising from global Internet services. A report released today by the Global Network Initiative, entitled “Data Beyond Borders: Mutual Legal Assistance in the Internet Era,” outlines key principles and specific reforms to drive a human rights-based approach to MLA reform for the twenty-first century.

“When mutual legal assistance does not function swiftly and fairly, governments resort to other tactics such as demanding data localization or attempting to apply their laws extraterritorially,” says report author Andrew K. Woods, assistant professor of law at the University of Kentucky. He added, “It is therefore critical that states work together to make mutual legal assistance more efficient and more protective of human rights. This is not an impossible task: states that are serious about reforming MLA can implement many of the most-urgent reforms in the next year.”

The report recommends that states work together to create a secure electronic system for managing MLA requests, increase staffing for MLA issues, and conduct thorough trainings at all levels of law enforcement to ensure that MLA requests are generated and processed as efficiently as possible and in a way that respects international human rights.

“This report offers a mutually beneficial approach to mutual legal assistance reform,” says GNI Policy and Communications Director David Sullivan. “Internet users, companies, and law enforcement officials would all benefit from a robust, principled, and transparent system for managing lawful requests across jurisdictions.”

###

Contact: David Sullivan, dsullivan@globalnetworkinitiative.org, +1-646-595-5373 

GNI is a multi-stakeholder group of companies, civil society organizations (including human rights and press freedom groups), investors and academics, who have created a collaborative approach to protect and advance freedom of expression and privacy in the ICT sector. GNI provides resources for ICT companies to help them address difficult issues related to freedom of expression and privacy that they may face anywhere in the world. GNI has created a framework of principles and a confidential, collaborative approach to working through challenges of corporate responsibility in the ICT sector.

2014 Learning Forum on Transparency and Human Rights in the Digital Age - California

Date: 
Wednesday, December 10, 2014 - 09:00

On November 6, 2014, the Global Network Initiative and the Telecommunications Industry Dialogue held the first of two 2014 Joint Learning Forum events in Sunnyvale, California at the headquarters of LinkedIn. The theme of the event was Transparency and Human Rights in the Digital Age. 

The event opened with welcoming remarks from Pablo Chavez on behalf of LinkedIn, Mark Stephens, GNI Independent Chair, and Jeffrey Dygert from AT&T on behalf of the Industry Dialogue.

Representatives of ICT companies, civil society organizations, the investor community, academia, and the United States government convened in three discussion panels over the course of the day. Each panel considered a specific issue related to Transparency and Human Rights in the Digital Age.

Panel 1: Why does transparency matter for protecting and respecting rights online?

Arvind Ganesan, Director of Business and Human Rights, Human Rights Watch

Michael Samway, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University

Arvind Ganesan began by remarking that the worst human rights abuses often occur in the most closed societies. Transparency is therefore a precursor to human rights progress, since we must first know about a company’s activities before we can determine whether it respects and promotes human rights. This applies also to governments, since debates about government surveillance and data collection procedures cannot yield substantive policy recommendations without information on the nature of the government’s activities. 

Michael Samway agreed and added that, beyond the normative and policy imperatives, the business case for transparency is also strong. Transparent business practices engender consumer trust and, by acting transparently, companies can distance themselves from the government and its actions. This point was revisited later in the conference when panelists discussed the German government’s cancellation of a multi-million dollar contract with Verizon due to concerns over US intelligence agencies’ access to Verizon customers’ data.

Panel 2: What is the current state of transparency reporting by companies and governments, and how it could be improved?

Steve Crown, Vice President and Deputy General Counsel, Microsoft

Jeffrey Dygert, Executive Director of Public Policy, AT&T

Jason Pielemeier, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State

Pranesh Prakash, Policy Director, Centre for Internet & Society, Bangalore 

Moderated by Bennett Freeman, Senior Vice President, Sustainability Research and Policy, Calvert Investments

All panelists agreed that transparency reporting is a necessary component of a robust accountability framework but does not, of itself, create a transparent system. 

Pranesh Prakash took this point further, noting that the transparency reports themselves are currently too narrow in scope, and should be expanded to cover all content removal or user data dissemination, not only those instances related to government requests.

Jason Pielemeier reflected on how revelations about national security surveillance have impacted efforts to promote global Internet freedom, noting that the Freedom Online Coalition could play a role developing human rights standards.

Jeffrey Dygert said that transparency reports have helped AT&T define and strengthen its standards on responding to government requests, noting that public scrutiny supports the development of company positions and standards. Steve Crown from Microsoft explained that transparency reports vary across companies, sectors, and jurisdiction, and that Microsoft works on the basis that a state has jurisdiction 

over the company if its servers are located there. 

Questions from the floor touched upon company disclosure policies and practices, and questioned whether the U.S. interpretations of international human rights standards interfere with companies’ responsibility to respect human rights. 

Panel 3: How do companies communicate with their users in response to live events?

Ben Blink, Senior Policy Analyst, Free Expression and International Relations, Google

Patrik Hiselius, Senior Advisor, Digital Rights, TeliaSonera

Rebecca MacKinnon, Director, Ranking Digital Rights Project, New America Foundation

Hemanshu Nigam, CEO, SSP Blue

Sana Saleem, Director, Bolo Bhi

Moderated by Cynthia Wong, Senior Internet Researcher, Human Rights Watch

Cynthia Wong opened this session by focusing in on how companies communicate with users, who generally have little idea how surveillance occurs. 

Sana Saleem from the Pakistan-based civil society organization Bolo Bhi described the challenges arising from the different ways that companies are responding to requests from the Government of Pakistan and underscored the need for greater understanding of the political and legal environment to better protect and respect rights. 

Rebecca MacKinnon added that companies are learning from mistakes in the past to buid trust and improve relationships with civil society organizations and activists on the ground in challenging environments. Ben Blink described Google’s efforts to communicate with users in response to the ruling of the European Court of Justice on the “right to be forgotten.” 

Patrik Hiselius described the constraints that companies face on what they can say in response to challenging situations, and the progress that TeliaSonera has made aggregating what information they can report on what is going on, as they have recently done in response to events in Tajikistan.

Hemanshu Nigam from SSP Blue has worked for both law enforcement and for companies and explained that some events can force a company to make an invidious choice between the rights of its employees and the rights of its users. In such situations it is particularly important that companies clearly communicate to their users the complexity of the dilemma they face and the reasons why certain decisions were made. 

Closing the event, GNI Executive Director Susan Morgan said that the ideas discussed today would be taken up in Geneva in December and inform GNI and the Industry Dialogue’s ongoing efforts to share best practices and find means to advance freedom of expression and privacy in the ICT sector.  

Pages

All articles and releases related to Intermediary Liability.

GNI Hosts UK Parliament Event on Cross-Border Data Law Enforcement Requests

Speakers highlighted the problematic extraterritorial provisions of the UK Investigatory Powers Bill and the opportunity to build a human rights respecting international framework for data sharing.

Date: 
Fri, 04/22/2016 - 17:21

GNI Welcomes Landmark Freedom of Expression Ruling by the Supreme Court of India

The Global Network Initiative applauds today's landmark ruling by the Supreme Court of India in support of freedom of expression.
Date: 
Tue, 03/24/2015 - 20:06

Interactive Slideshow Explores Impact of India's Internet Laws

The Global Network Initiative and the Internet and Mobile Association of India are working together to explain how India’s Internet and technology laws holding back economic innovation and freedom of expression.
Date: 
Thu, 07/17/2014 - 00:01

Report: Strengthening Protections for Online Platforms Could Add Billions to India’s GDP

The Global Network Initiative today released a report prepared by Copenhagen Economics, which found that online platforms that support user-generated content can become an important part of India’s Internet economy.

Date: 
Tue, 03/25/2014 - 00:01

GNI Responds to European Commission Consultations

The Global Network Initiative has submitted comments to the European Commission on two recent consultations relevant to freedom of expression and privacy in the ICT sector.

Date: 
Wed, 10/10/2012 - 10:05

Wall Street Journal Asia Op-Ed: "Thailand Stifles the Internet"

This op-ed by GNI Independent Chair Jermyn Brooks originally appeared in the Wall Street Journal Asia.

Date: 
Thu, 06/07/2012 (All day)

GNI Statement on Thai Court Conviction

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) is troubled by the conviction of Chiranuch Premchaiporn, webmaster of the online forum Prachathai, under Thailand’s Computer Crimes Act for not moving quickly enough to remove content posted by users.

Date: 
Thu, 05/31/2012 - 10:01

Global Network Initiative Concerned by Government of Vietnam’s Proposed Internet Decree

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) is deeply concerned by the free speech and privacy implications of the Government of Vietnam’s Draft Decree on Internet Services.

Date: 
Wed, 05/23/2012 - 14:26

GNI Statement on Protecting Intellectual Property and Upholding Free Expression and Innovation Online

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) welcomes the decision by Congressional leaders to postpone immediate consideration of proposed intellectual property legislation in the Senate and House of Representatives. GNI supports the goal of protecting intellectual property online, but we firmly believe that the approach used in the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and Protect-IP (PIPA) is flawed and poses an unacceptable threat to global online freedom of expression and innovation.

Date: 
Fri, 01/20/2012 - 17:33

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GNI Submits Comments to UN on Privacy in the Digital Age

GNI provides input for the report of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on “The right to privacy in the digital age.”
Date: 
Wed, 04/02/2014 - 08:09

GNI Writes to UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on Privacy in the Digital Age

The Global Network Initiative has written to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on the occasion of an expert seminar on the right to privacy in the digital age organized by the Permanent Missions of Austria, Brasil, Germany, Liechtenstein, Mexico, Norway, and Switzerland to the UN in Geneva.

Date: 
Mon, 02/24/2014 - 12:12

GNI at the Internet Governance Forum in Bali, Indonesia

The Global Network Initiative will participate in the 2013 Internet Governance Forum in Bali, Indonesia.

Date: 
Wed, 10/16/2013 - 13:43

The Open Internet After Dubai: Strengths and Vulnerabilities, Opportunities and Threats

This past week in Dubai, governments from around the world attempted to use an international telecommunications treaty to increase government control over the Internet in ways harmful to online free expression and privacy.

Date: 
Tue, 12/18/2012 - 08:45

International Herald Tribune Op-Ed: "Hands Off the Internet!"

A chorus of human rights groups, diplomats, companies and technologists has achieved something remarkable. They are shining a media spotlight on the most boring international conference you have never heard of: an obscure gathering of governments called the World Conference on International Telecommunications, or W.C.I.T.

Date: 
Thu, 12/06/2012 - 11:32

Corporate Responsibility and Global Internet Governance

This December in Dubai, world governments will gather to renegotiate a key treaty under the auspices of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a UN agency that specializes in global telecommunications.

Date: 
Tue, 10/02/2012 - 08:00

Global Network Initiative Welcomes UN Human Rights Council Resolution on Human Rights on the Internet

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) welcomes the UN Human Rights Council Resolution on the promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the Internet adopted on July 6, 2012. At a time of great debate regarding the role of governments, companies, and other stakeholders on Internet governance, it is important that a UN body has affirmed by consensus that the same rights that people have offline, particularly freedom of expression, also apply online.

Date: 
Fri, 07/06/2012 - 10:39

The Multi-stakeholder Model of Internet Governance Needs to be Retained

The Global Network Initiative urges the retention of the multi-stakeholder approach to Internet governance as global policy forums create policy for the future. Several important decisions are to be made around Internet governance in the coming year.

Date: 
Fri, 06/22/2012 - 04:22

GNI's Submission to the UN Working Group on Business and Human Rights

The Global Network Initiative submitted the following letter to the UN Working Group on business and human rights. Our submission and that of other stakeholders can also be viewed on their website.

Date: 
Thu, 01/12/2012 - 17:31

GNI announces workshop at IGF 2011 in Nairobi

The Global Network Initiative is pleased to announce it will be hosting a workshop at the 6th Annual Internet Governance Forum 2011, held September 27th-30th at the United Nations Office in Nairobi, Kenya. GNI would like to welcome all those interested to attend the workshop, entitled "The Business of Human Rights: Corporate Responsibility and ICTs".

This workshop will discuss:

Date: 
Wed, 09/07/2011 - 16:15

Pages

All articles assessing the human rights impacts of issues addressed by GNI.

GNI Joins Coalition Letter to Senate regarding Section 603 of Intelligence Authorization Act

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) joined human rights and civil liberties organizations and trade associations to convey its concerns with a provision in the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (S. 1705) in a coalition letter to Senate.

Date: 
Tue, 08/04/2015 - 14:35

Video: Mark Stephens on the 'Right to Be Forgotten' Ruling

Date: 
Fri, 05/30/2014 - 14:59


GNI Board Chair Mark Stephens discusses the EU Court of Justice ruling on BBC World: 

EU Court ‘Right to Be Forgotten’ Ruling Threatens Freedom of Expression

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) is deeply troubled by the risks to freedom of expression and access to information in the ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union allowing individuals to compel search engines to remove links to unwanted information—even if that information is accurate, lawful, and publicly available elsewhere.

Date: 
Thu, 05/15/2014 - 11:38

Video: The Role of Human Rights Impact Assessments in Advancing Rights Online

Date: 
Mon, 04/28/2014 - 14:46


At the meeting of the Freedom Online Coalition in Tallinn, Estonia, GNI organized a session with the Telecommunications Industry Dialogue on Human Rights Impact Assessments in the ICT sector: 

Comments on European Commission draft ICT sector guidance on business and human rights

The Global Network Initiative welcomes the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry project to develop guidance on the corporate responsibility to respect human rights in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector.

Date: 
Thu, 02/14/2013 - 14:37

Facebook Gains Observer Status with the Global Network Initiative

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) is pleased to announce that Facebook is the first company to gain observer status with GNI. Observer status is an opportunity for companies who are actively considering joining GNI to examine the initiative's programs as well as its principles on free expression and privacy.

Date: 
Thu, 05/03/2012 - 09:00

GNI Statement on the Global Online Freedom Act of 2011

The Global Network Initiative (GNI) supports the objective of legislation that would protect and advance rights to free expression and privacy online and provide increased transparency and accountability for information and communications technology (ICT) companies operating worldwide.
 
GNI member companies have made a public commitment to undertake human rights due diligence measures. We commend the authors of H.R. 3605, the Global Online Freedom Act of 2011, for requiring disclosure by companies about the human rights due diligence measures they undertake. 
Date: 
Wed, 03/28/2012 - 09:59

First Independent Assessments of GNI Founding Companies Completed

The three founding Global Network Initiative (GNI) companies—Google, Microsoft, and Yahoo!—have undergone the first independent assessments to determine how they are implementing their GNI commitments so far. This was the world's first independent assessment of corporate policies and procedures in the Information & Communications Technology (ICT) industry to address freedom of expression and privacy rights.
 
Date: 
Tue, 03/06/2012 - 09:49

GNI Statement in Response to Violence in London

In his response to the violent unrest in the UK over the past week, UK Prime Minister David Cameron said the government is considering whether it would be right to place limits on social media access in certain cases. While criminality and violence deserve condemnation and prosecution under the full extent of the law, the Global Network Initiative (GNI) urges the British government to consider the domestic and global ramifications for civil liberties and human rights as it develops specific proposals. 

Date: 
Thu, 08/11/2011 - 17:08

GNI statement on UN Work on the Human Right of Freedom of Expression

On the 28th of July, the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations approved a new “General Comment” of Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, giving clear guidance on the legitimate restrictions on freedom of expression that states can make.

Date: 
Fri, 08/05/2011 - 16:00

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